Development of candelilla wax oleogels as a medium of controlled release of phosphorus in an in vitro model Article uri icon


  • Candelilla wax (CW) oleogels were developed as an alternative bolus material for delivering phosphorus into the rumen of goats. The systems were studied at three CW concentrations (10%25, 15%25 and 20%25) in vegetable oil. Each oleogel was added with a specific amount of calcium orthophosphate as a phosphorus source. The thermomechanical properties of the oleogels were characterized by DSC and rheology, and the viability of phosphorus delivery was evaluated using a laboratory model in two mediums (one aqueous and another with ruminal fluid). The results showed that the oleogels had a higher melting point (~52.8◦ C) than the temperature of the ruminal environment and greater G′ values (1.6 × 106 Pa in 20%25 CW oleogel with phosphorus). Such characteristics guaranteed the integrity of the materials during the process in the model systems studied. It was demonstrated that when using the 20%25 CW oleogel, the phosphorus was slowly released for 84 h, completing a maximum of 83.3–98%25 of the total amount of phosphorus added to the bolus (in the aqueous and ruminal fluid models, respectively). These results enable us to propose this material as a delivery system for phosphorus supplementation in goats. Its effectivity in goats will be evaluated in future in vivo investigations. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

publication date

  • 2021-01-01

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