Nondestructive biomarkers in giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess the effect of complex mixture of pollutants in Coatzacoalcos River, Mexico Article uri icon


  • In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of nondestructive biomarkers approach in giant toads (Rhinella marina). We obtained blood samples and the residual condition index of toads from rural and industrial zones from Coatzacoalcos River, Mexico (COA). In the blood samples, we determined the activity of enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and the presence of cell death (apoptosis). We found that the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase was lower. Still, the glutathione s-transferase activity and the percentage of apoptosis in erythrocytes were higher in the toads of COA than laboratory toads. Meanwhile, some biomarkers in toads showed differences when compared between Industrial and Rural zones. These results and correlations between biomarkers showed how the response changed in the toads living near the industrial zones. We demonstrate that a nondestructive biomarkers approach can be useful in environmental studies with anuran amphibians. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

publication date

  • 2021-01-01