Territorial articulation of pesticides management in the framework of phytosanitary protection. The case of the agricultural valley of Rioverde and Ciudad Fernández, San Luis Potosí [Articulación territorial de la gestión de plaguicidas en el marco de la protección fitosanitaria. El caso del valle agrícola de Rioverde y Ciudad Fernández, San Luis Potosí]
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The purpose of plant health and protection is to generate actions for the control of agricultural pests and diseases, the use of pesticides and the determination of phytosanitary status for commercialization within the framework of food safety. However, plant protection as a normative and regulatory instrument has remained on the global and national scale, when pest management is mainly local. There is an institutional and territorial disarticulation regarding the regulation of pesticides. At a global level, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was recognized as the public policy of pest management and control, at the local level, this structure did not arrive and is not applied due to the lack of a phytosanitary extension model. This means that the only means to eradicate agricultural pests is the indiscriminate use of pesticides, some prohibited, in other countries due to the significant effects on human health and the environment. However, Mexico allows its distribution and commercialization. The research was developed in the agricultural valley of Rioverde and Ciudad Fernández, two municipalities in the state of San Luis Potosí, considered an area of great importance in agricultural terms, above all, due to its high productivity of orange cultivation. It has also been characterized by the use of dangerous pesticides, which has affected the health of the population and concern for its most important resource, water. Due to the aforementioned, this work aimed to demonstrate that territorial governance problems constitute the most important challenge to face and solve the pesticide problem in Mexico. The methodological process had a qualitative and quantitative approach based on the extension of innovation through geotechnologies for the identification of areas and plots with greater use of pesticides to combat pests and diseases of crops. The methodological process consisted of two phases: A) the sampling was through the mobile application called Agroquímicos LAGES developed by the National Laboratory of Geoprocessing of Phytosanitary Information (LaNGIF), this process was in charge of students of Engineering in Agricultural Innovation Sustainable Institute of the Higher Technological Institute (ITS) and of Agroindustrial Engineering and Agronomic Engineering in Phytotechnics of the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí (UASLP), generating a database with 22,939 data on producers, crops and pesticides; b) The data analysis consisted, first of all, in making a distinction between permitted and restricted pesticides detected in the area based on the Registry of Canceled Pesticides and Nutrients of the Federal Commission for Protection against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS) for later apply the non-parametric statistical hypothesis test Chi square (X2) and thus determine the existence of association between the level of education, type of crop (vegetables, corn and orange) and the taxonomic group with pesticides, likewise an analysis was carried out Multicriteria to identify and classify, through spatial nodes, the areas with restricted pesticide application and in turn, the characterization of the producers, the cultivation and the land tenure. As a result, it was obtained that the agronomic houses control the management of pesticides, which are small private businesses that face lax agricultural, environmental and health policies, and act outside the state and national regulations; In statistical terms, the crops with the highest frequency of restricted pesticide use were corn and vegetables, and in spatial terms, restricted pesticides such as: Diazinon, Glyphosate, Carbofuran, Chlorpyrifos Ethyl, Methamidophos, Metomil and Monocrotophos are applied in the El Refugio ejido. all Highly Hazardous Pesticides (HHP). Given this scenario, it is considered necessary to generate inventories according to the phytosanitary status of pests and diseases, in addition to diagnoses on the use of pesticides at a local scale. Without this, actions aimed at solving, remedying and reducing the economic, environmental and health problems caused by said disarticulation are difficult. The methodological triad that consisted of the use of geotechnologies, statistical analysis and spatial analysis allows us to generate diagnoses and monitor the use and management of pesticides, at low cost and at a local scale. It is important to note that the identification of the areas with the greatest application of restricted pesticides does not have the motivation to transfer responsibility to the producer. On the contrary, they are intended to direct phytosanitary extension actions to specific sites. © 2021 Instituto de Geografia. All rights reserved.