Molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance to metal and metal oxide nanoparticles Review uri icon


  • The increase in bacterial resistance to one or several antibiotics has become a global health problem. Recently, nanomaterials have become a tool against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are one of the most studied nanomaterials against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several in vitro studies report that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. However, until recently, the bacterial resistance mechanisms to the bactericidal action of the nanoparticles had not been investigated. Some of the recently reported resistance mechanisms include electrostatic repulsion, ion eux pumps, expression of extracellular matrices, and the adaptation of biofilms and mutations. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent findings regarding the mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles. © 2019 by the authors.

publication date

  • 2019-01-01