Rapid analysis of persistent organic pollutants by solid phase microextraction in serum samples Article uri icon


  • A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) based method is presented for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in human serum by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass detector (MS) with electron impact ionization (EI). As an outcome of the assessment of several polymer phases; the one with the best result was the PDMS fiber (100 μm). A multivariate analysis of variance by permutations (PERMANOVA) was performed to establish the optimal extraction conditions as a function of temperature and time variables. The results were 1 mL serum%2b200 μL H2SO 4 9 M%2b1 mL of deionized water at 600 rpm with a temperature of 80 C for 50 min to expose the fiber. The limits of detection (LOD) for POPs pesticides fell within the 0.22-5.41 ng/mL interval, and within 0.07-1.79 ng/mL for PCBs; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (15 ng/mL) were 67.8-120.2%25, and at high concentrations (75 ng/mL) 80.2-119.2%25. Evaluated precision as percentage Relative Standard Deviation (RSD%25) of repeatability and reproducibility was within a range of 0.5-9%25 and 0.3-21%25, respectively. This analytical method prevents some of the main problems for quantifying POPs in human serum, such as the elimination of the solvents, sample handling, integration of extraction steps, pre-concentration and introduction of samples; consequently, the time and cost of analyzing the sample can be significantly reduced. The method developed was applied to determine exposure to POPs in samples of children living in different polluted sites in Mexico. In children living in indigenous communities results show exposure to DDE (median 29.2 ng/mL range 17.4-52.2 ng/mL) and HCB (median 2.53 ng/mL range 2.50-2.64 ng/mL); whereas in the industrial scenario, exposure to HCB (median 2.81 ng/mL range 2.61-3.4 ng/mL) and PCBs (median Σ-PCBs 22.2 ng/ml range 8.2-74.6 ng/mL) and finally in petrochemical scenario was demonstrated exposure to HCB (median 2.81 ng/mL range 2.61-3.4 ng/mL) and PCBs (Σ-PCBs median 7.9 ng/mL range 5.4-114.5 ng/mL). © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

publication date

  • 2014-01-01