The interplay between exposure to PAHs and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in Mexican women Article uri icon


  • Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Environmental and genetic factors are recognized as risk determinants in the onset and development of CVDs. However, the interaction between both factors on CVDs risk is not still completely clarified. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the interaction between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure (gene-environment interaction) on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in Mexican women. A cross-sectional study was completed with the participation of 390 healthy women. For all enrolled women, anthropometric measurements, serum biochemical analyses, atherogenic indexes, and serum concentrations of biomolecules used as CVD risk biomarkers were obtained. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was measured in urine, as an exposure biomarker of PAHs. The mean urinary level of 1-OHP in the assessed population was 1.23 ± 1.40 μmol/mol creatinine. The allelic frequency (MTHFR C677T polymorphism) identified in the registered individuals was 68.0%25 for the mutant allele (T-allele). Significant positive associations were detected between urinary 1-OHP levels and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations (p < 0.05) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) values (p < 0.05). Also, women with the TT genotype of the MTHFR C677T enzyme have the highest serum ADMA levels (p < 0.05) and AIP values (p < 0.05) compared to women grouped as CC genotype and CT genotype. Besides, the findings in this study suggest an interaction between environmental (PAHs exposure) and genetic (MTHFR C677T polymorphism) factors on cardiovascular risk markers (ADMA and AIP). According to the usefulness of AIP and ADMA, an increased cardiovascular risk is notable in highly exposed individuals to PAHs with the polymorphic genotype (TT) of the MTHFR enzyme. Therefore, intervention programs in the target communities are required to diminish the cardiovascular risk of the assessed individuals. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

publication date

  • 2022-01-01