Optimization of synthesis variables and characterization of devilfish bone chars for the removal of cadmium(II) from water Article uri icon


  • The optimization of the synthesis variables of bone chars prepared from devilfish bones was studied in this work. The prepared materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Textural properties and amount of active sites were also determined. The adsorbents were used for the removal of Cd2%2b from aqueous solution. Based on a D-Optimal experimental design, the synthesis of 13 materials was established, which were calcined in a tube furnace at a temperature range of 600 to 800 °C and synthesis time of 1 to 3 h with a heating ramp of 10 °C min−1. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents to remove Cd2%2b in batch adsorbers at pH 7.0 and T = 25 °C was evaluated. The bone char that exhibited the highest adsorption capacity of 124.6 mg g−1 was synthesized at 600 °C and 3 h. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the bone char synthesis model revealed that calcination temperature is significant on Cd2%2b adsorption capacity and independent of time. The optimum values of the calcination variables for a maximum adsorption capacity of 117.4 mg g−1 were 600 °C and 1 h. The textural and physicochemical properties of the bone adsorbent confirmed the presence of Cd2%2b on its surface. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Materials Research Society.

publication date

  • 2022-01-01