Antivirals based on nanomaterials against SARS-CoV-2
Additional Document Info
In this chapter the use of nanomaterials (e.g., graphene oxide, quantum dots, silver, zinc oxide, and gold nanoparticles) to combat COVID-19 is presented. This chapter does not include nanomaterials used for the release of drugs or antiviral molecules where the nanomaterial is not a part of the antiviral effect. The nanomaterials presented somehow interact with the virus, therefore, having an antiviral effect per se. The chapter first reviews the updated efforts conducted evaluating nanomaterials against SARS-CoV-2. Later, the chapter reviews nanomaterials that have been evaluated against enveloped viruses (e.g., the feline coronavirus, influenza A virus, pseudorabies virus, herpes simplex virus, and respiratory syncytial virus), which could be tested against SARS-CoV-2. Most of the nanomaterials studied thus far are effective at inhibiting viruses when contacting them with the virus before infection. Incipient studies address the use of nanomaterials in therapeutic approaches. Similarly, most studies of nanomaterials against viruses have only been evaluated in vitro. Few studies have been conducted in vivo using mice. Virus inactivation is generally achieved by the interaction of the nanomaterial and the virus through electrostatic, hydrophobic, and affinity interactions. A combination of these interactions could arise depending on the properties of the nanomaterial. In few stances the nanomaterial studied responds to an external stimulation, such as near-infrared irradiation, to inactivate the virus. Finally, some works evaluate or envision the nanomaterials as antiviral agents of surfaces or components of personal protection equipment.