Giant Toads (Rhinella marina) From the Industrial Zones of Low Basin of the Coatzacoalcos River (Veracruz, MX) Presents Genotoxicity in Erythrocytes Article uri icon


  • The lower basin of Coatzacoalcos River is one of the most polluted regions of the southern Gulf of Mexico. Organochlorine compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals have been registered in this region. In the present study, genotoxicity was evaluated in the blood of giant toads (Rhinella marina) from Coatzacoalcos’ rural and industrial zones, and compared with laboratory toads. Determination of the frequency of micronucleus and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities by the light microscope and cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry were used as biomarkers of genotoxicity. We found more variability in micronucleus and more nuclear buds in toads from industrial zones. Also, cell cycle alterations and an increase of apoptosis in erythrocytes were found in toads from rural and industrial zones. Multivariate statistics show that the toads from the industrial zone were more affected than toads from laboratory and rural zones. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science%2bBusiness Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

publication date

  • 2021-01-01